Man in the Anthropocene

Humans are born out of history, on the other hand, history is born out of human life. Currently, humans have been in the Anthropocene, the era after the Holocene, a time when humans were more powerful in nature. This results in an imbalance of give and take activities between humans and the nature they inhabit. With rapid population growth, human needs will also increase. This increase in human needs will impact the availability of existing natural resources. The exploitation of natural products such as coal, natural gas and others, is accompanied by waste from production and human activities that produce waste in many sectors of life. What has been exploited by man the impact is no longer comparable to what nature gives. Although nature has the ability to self-regenerate, but with such aggressive human activities in this era of globalization, it goes against nature’s natural processes. The presence of factories all over the world after the steam engine and the industrial revolution, weapons such as missiles, atomic bombs as a means of warfare for other humans, rockets and all kinds of vehicles of human ambition to export nature, all produce residual waste that is released, resulting in a large carbon footprint. affect the atmosphere which is like a protector and temperature regulator on earth. Not to mention the mining of many other cultures.

The question that can often be asked but need not be answered is “why should humans care about all this?”

Over the past 100 years, the average temperature of the earth has increased by 0.4 to 0.8 C. The ambition of the countries of the world today is 1.5 degrees Celsius, as humans face the risk of a 4 degree rise, which means it will be the same for temperatures that occurred between the ice age and the Holocene. In other words, humans are still far behind with the rate of destruction that exists. This warming will result in the emergence of many disasters in human life. Global warming is expected to melt the glaciers at both poles and increase the volume of sea water, most likely some islands on earth are at risk of sinking, especially the Indonesian archipelago which is a young land in geological history. In addition, other impacts will be felt on climate change, a matter of months, days, seasons. Nature which is the main reference for farmers, fishermen and various working sectors related to climate and seasons will feel a forecast crisis, several regions in Indonesia are experiencing crop failure due to the calculations they make based on seasonal calculations are no longer accurate, even though these calculations have been passed down from generation to generation. inherited. But climate change and global warming have turned astronomy upside down. This may also be why the Mayan calendar (piktun) only predicts until 2012.

Not only the estimated harvest season, but natural imbalances also cause disease vectors to spread from animals to humans. Until now, there has not been a single plausible theory that explains with certainty and precision where COVID-19 came from and how it will disappear. Research is still ongoing, all the theories put forward by scientists may be true. But scientists who study the environment, viruses, pandemics, health have found this enigma, which begins with “environmental imbalance”. If we briefly describe, in the food chain there is one missing which then results in advantages and disadvantages between predator and prey. If the rice paddy snakes are chased away by the farmers, the rats will live longer, then they will also eat the rice, and the farmers will end up not harvesting. Likewise, the case of COVID-19, with the large number of wild animal killings, has changed the pattern of the food chain.

Covid 19 and the balance of nature

There are many theories that explain the origin of the pandemic that humans are currently experiencing, but so far there is no definite news about the origin and cause of the disaster. US intelligence agencies say they may never be able to identify the origins of Covid-19, but they have concluded the virus was not created as a bioweapon. Apart from the specifics of covid 19 which is a virus, the existence of which can never be seen with the naked eye, a number of scientists believe that the covid 19 pandemic is occurring due to natural imbalances. The COVID-19 pandemic which was determined by the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Health Agency on March 11, 2020, could also occur due to the disruption of the food cycle which has resulted in the explosion of a predatorless component of life. in the same period of time.

The SARS-VoV-2 virus is a disease of animal origin that is transmitted to humans. It is possible that the disease originated in bats and then spread to other mammals.

Even though it’s not made in a lab, that doesn’t mean humans have no role in the ongoing pandemic. A recent study by Australian and American scientists found that human actions on natural habitats, loss of biodiversity and destruction of ecosystems contribute to the spread of the virus.

The number of infectious diseases has more than tripled every decade since the 1980s. More than two-thirds of these diseases come from animals, and about 70% of that number come from wild animals. The infectious diseases that we know, for example: Ebola, HIV, swine flu and avian flu, are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

COVID-19 is also spreading rapidly as the world’s population becomes increasingly tightly connected. This situation, which surprised many people, had in fact been warned by scientists for a long time. Joachim Spangenberg, vice-president of the European Institute for Sustainable Development Research, said that by destroying ecosystems, humans create conditions that cause animal viruses to spread to humans. “We created this situation, not the animals,” Spangenberg said. In 2016, the UNEP Frontier was warned that at least every four months a new zoonosis would appear. This is due to human activities as follows:

Deforestation and habitat destruction

because humans are increasingly opening up areas inhabited by wildlife to graze livestock and harvest natural resources, humans are also increasingly susceptible to pathogens that have never left the area before and are leaving the bodies of the animals they inhabit.

“We are getting closer to wild animals,” said Yan Xiang, a virologist at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center. “And that puts us in contact with these viruses.” While David Hayman, professor of infectious disease ecology at Massey University, New Zealand, said the risk is also increased not only by humans entering natural habitats, but also by animals. human pet

Additionally, the destruction of ecosystems also impacts the types of viruses that thrive in nature and how they spread.

David Hayman pointed out that over the past few centuries tropical forests have been reduced by 50%. This has a very bad impact on the ecosystem. In a number of cases, scientists were able to reveal that while animals at the top of the food chain disappeared, animals at the bottom, such as mice that carried more pathogens, took their place at the top of the food chain. .

“Each species has a particular role in the ecosystem. If one species takes the place of another, it can have a major impact in terms of disease risk. And often we can’t predict the risk,” says Alica Latinne of the Wildlife Conservation Society.

Evidence showing a link between the destruction of ecosystems and the increased risk of spreading new infections has led experts to stress the importance of the “One Health” concept.

Wildlife trade

Markets selling wildlife and wildlife-derived products are another infectious disease incubator. Scientists consider it very likely that the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the disease COVID-19 appeared at a wildlife market in Wuhan, China.

Spangenberg explains that placing sick and stressed animals in cramped cages is an “ideal way” to breed new pathogens and spread disease from one species to another. Therefore, many scientists have called for stricter regulations for the wild animal market.

This is also the call of Elizabeth Maruma Mrema, Director General of the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. He called for a global ban on wildlife markets. But Mrema also reveals that for millions of people, especially in the poorest parts of the world, these markets are a source of income.

Indonesia’s position in the eyes of the world

Indonesia is a country with a very large tropical forest, in COP 26 it was declared that Indonesia is the last bastion of the planet Earth with the Amazon and Congo forests. save a lot of genetic material, the forest area of ​​Indonesia is 128 million hectares. Indonesia is a country with the third largest tropical rainforest in the world. This means that there is a lot of germplasm stored there. It will also be a great scourge if the vast forest cannot be tended properly. The expansion of residential areas, the planting of oil palms, the clearing of land and roads will destroy some of the existing germplasm. Currently, humans have lost 8% of animal species and another 22%. If Indonesia participates in efforts to reduce and destroy the environment intentionally or not, we can estimate what will happen in the future.